Old Swedish 'Didriks Chronicle':



Manuscript E 9013

Skokloster-Codex I / 115 & 116 quarto
K 45, 4o
Riksarkivet, Stockholm.

Old Swedish text published by G. O. Hyltén-Cavallius, Stockholm 1850–1854.

German Translation by Heinz Ritter-Schaumburg, 1989.
English Translation by Ian Cumpstey, 2017.

This translation is Copyright © Rolf Badenhausen.

Preface revised 2017-10-09.
Text revised 2017-10-21.


This translation includes all chapters related to the Niflungen, the Old Swedish Nyfflings. Supplemental quotations, taken from the Old Norse manuscript Perg.fol.nr.4., are marked by 'Mb'.
The Old Swedish texts have, to minor extent, inadvertent times forming. The interjection 'there' instead of 'then' has been frequently used here.
Remarks are put in parentheses.
Geographical supplements, taken from the Old Norse manuscript, are put in {} parentheses.


There is a castle called Sægard near (Codex A: 'in front of') the North Mountains (A: 'in Svava') that had the rich Brynilla, the Beauty and Bright; and many deeds have been done for her in the world. She was a mighty virgin. Her father and her mother were dead.
She had a large farm in the woodland nearby; a man called Studder was running it. He had his stud there (A: 'She had her stud there') in that woodland, and all the horses were grey and black. The best stallions of all were raised there, whites and falcons and some other.
Studder had a son who was also called Studder. His face was broad but not long. He had large and sprightly eyes; he had golden hair, a brown beard, and broad shoulders. He had long arms and four elbows, thick hands and fine fingers. He was a small man, quite burly.
It was greatest pleasure to him to ride a man-to-man fight and to learn fencing. He was able to shoot well with a crossbow. He was grim and haughty, so that nobody was going to be on friendly terms with him. He was the sprightliest noble knight of all. He loved his friends cordially. They changed his name and called him Heym, because a (dragon-)worm is called Heym that is full of poison; all worms are afraid of him. Thus, the folk were also frightened of Heym. He was often doing rather worse than better. His father gave him a stallion that was called Rispa. He was raised at the same stud as said afore; and he was pitch-grey.

A king named Sigmund was ruling a realm called Tarlungaland. He was a rich man and a strong fighter. He sent messengers to  Nydung-King of Yspanea (Hesbaye) in order to court for his daughter. Her name was Sissibe, she was both bright and beauty.
The king received them well and said, 'I will not send out my daughter with only a few men to accompany her; but I know that Sigmund is a man of good descent and a strong fighter. If he would come to me with noble knights and squires, I would be pleased to give him my daughter.'
Thereafter he gave a gift to the messengers and let them return.
They came home and told their lord the answer they had received.
There King Sigmund prepared and rode to Yspanea with four hundred knights being rigged out preciously. Nydung-king sent messengers towards him and received him very well. When Sigmund had come to Yspanea, he was courting for the daughter of the king. King Nydung answered him benevolently, gave him his daughter, and let invite dukes and counts, knights and squires. And he performed wedding celebration before they parted. Nydung-king gave Sigmund large castles and the half of his realm. He gave the other half to his son Ortwangeris and made him King of Yspanea because he was an old man. There was a five days wedding celebration.
Thereafter King Sigmund rode home with his spouse.

On the eighth day after Sigmund's return, two messengers came from a king who was called Drasolf. His spouse was Sigmund's sister. He hoped for help of Sigmund-king and requested him to come. He was in war against a land named Talingeland.
King Sigmund answered, 'I will help my brother-in-law as much as I can!'
Thereupon he gathered folk from everywhere in his realm, and prepared to be absent for a year. He ordered two counts to run the realm. One of them was Hermen, and the other was Hartwen. He requested them to support his spouse. They were excellent and clever men. Therefore, he trusted them very well and ordered them to be obedient to the queen. Thereupon he rode to Drasolf-king. Drasolf had about three hundred knights, all together he had seven thousand men. King Sigmund had not less folk.
They made war on Pullia and won much glory there.

Now the counts were reining Sigmund's realm.
One day, Hartwen went to the queen, talked with her and said, 'You certainly know that I am administrating this realm and all you have. So I will tell you my idea: I want to have you as my legal spouse, and we both will be going have everything that is under my administration. Besides, I would never believe that King Sigmund would return some day! If he should return, yet, I would preserve this realm against him – if you would, too. I am a better fighter than he!'
The queen replied, 'Don't talk with me by such words! I don't want a man before the return of my lord! I will forgive your daring words. If you do it again, I will tell it to my lord. Then you will be punished for it, and he will order to hang you at once!'
He answered, 'You certainly have realized that I am as mighty as Sigmund-king; and I have both, lands and realm!'
She replied, 'Even if you were holding the world's half, you are still King Sigmund's vassal! And I want him, and never you! Talk never again about it here if you want to stay alive!'
There he went to Hermen, his good fellow. He asked him how to promote his intention.
Hermen answered, 'I would like to see that you rather would give up your evil intention. If you would not in the end, I will help you with my best words and deeds.'
Herwin said, 'We cannot conceal it: I must get there! Either, I have to die for it or she will lose her live!'
Now Hermen went with him to the queen. The queen received Hermen well. Then he began to intercede on Hartwen's behalf. The queen answered as she did before and became very angry with him. Thus, he left her for is good fellow and told him the answer.
Hartwen often attempted the same to the queen, but got the worse as the answer.

Sigmund-king and Drasolf-king singed and devastated in Pullialand, and brought about many losses there.
Thereafter they turned home, each of them to his realm. The counts heard of it – that King Sigmund was approaching his realm.
Hartwen said to Hermen, 'When the king comes home, the queen will tell him what we have told her, and we might attract big wrath to ourselves. We have to find a way out of it!'
Thereafter they went to the queen and said that they would go to see the king and take notice of his wellness.
She agreed with it.
When they met him, he received them well.
Hartwen secretly said to the king, 'I must tell you bad information. I cannot deny it because it belonged to my duty while you was absent: As you had left your home, she was going to play a bad game. She was sleeping with one of her servants. As we tried to forbid her to do it, she told us to complain to you; and now you may order to kill us if you would like to do so. However, the servant was laying in her arms in some nights and she bears a child of him. We just want to tell you this before you come home.'
The king answered, 'If you were lying about her, both of you will pay with your life!'
They swore they had told the whole truth about it.
The king said, 'Good friends, what shall I do with that wife who has behaved so badly? I want to hang her, or stitch out her eyes, or cut off her feet, and send her so to her father!'
Hartwen answered, 'Bring her to a woodland called Swana; there is no road crossing through, and tell to cut out her tongue, and let her stay alive as long as she can!'
The king said that this was good advice. He ordered them to lead the queen into Swana woodland.

Thereupon they rode home to the queen. As she saw them coming, she was glad and expected good message from her lord.
Hartwen said to her, 'King Sigmund has come home; he is here in Swana woodland with all his troops. He requested you to come to him. We have to accompany you to go there, as he gave order to us.'
The queen answered, 'I like to go to him. Let me take a maid with me!'
Hermen answered, 'There's no long way, so you don't need to take a maid with you.'
Thereupon they accompanied her to Swana woodland. As they arrived a large valley that nobody has ever seen before, they got down from their horses.
There the queen said in big sorrow, 'Where are you, Sigmund-king? Why have you told these men to bring me here? Now I know that I have been cheated. You have misled not only me, but also your own child!'
She was crying utterly.
Now Hermen said, 'Now we're going to do as we've been told: To cut out the tongue from your head and bring it to your king! And here, you are to lose your life!'
Hermen replied, 'This woman is not guilty! Let's find another way out! Let's take this dog accompanying us, and cut him out the tongue from his head, and bring it to the king!'
'No!' said Herwin, 'She's now to pay for her bad answers, and she's not to live any longer!'
Hermen retorted, 'So help me God! Don't do anything evil to her – as far as I'm able to forbid you!' and drew his sword out the scabbard.
At the same time, the queen bore a gorgeous boy. She took a vessel of glass she has been drinking from, wrapped him in a cloth, placed him into the vessel and put it on her side. The counts were fighting fiercely and manly. Hartwen kicked the vessel so that it fell into the river. There Hermen swung his sword with both hands to Hartwen's neck and beheaded him.
When the queen saw the child moving away, she lost consciousness for the weakness she had got before. There she died. Hermen buried her corpse; thereafter he mounted his horse and rode to Sigmund-king.

Now Sigmund-king asked him where his good fellow was.
Hermen answered, 'We got at odds because he wanted to kill the queen; I pitied and wanted to help her. We were quarrelling until we started up fighting, and I brought death to him. The queen bore a precious son. Hartwen kicked him into the river before he died.'
The king asked, 'To whom did the queen ascribe the child, me or the servant? Or did you lie on her?'
Hermen answered, 'That is no lie. It often happens that a man commits foolishness and does regret it a long time, but he might be still a man of honour, nonetheless.'
The king said, 'Get back! Get out of my sight! Face me never again! I don't want your service because you are every lord's cheat!'
Hermen set off with all his men and he never returned.

The vessel of glass, with the child in it, was flowing down to a sandbank, and the water went down.
There the glass broke, and the child started crying. There a hind came along, took the child with her mouth, carried him up to the woodland, and put him to her babies. She let him breastfeed and raised him as fine as she could for a year. On anniversary, he was so large and strong as a four years old boy.

There was a smith called Mymmer (Mime) – not far from that woodland.
He was the best smith being known in those times. He had a wife and many helpers; but he had not a child with his wife. He had big problems about it. He had a brother called Regen; he was both large and evil. Therefore, it was going bad with him, because he was such an old hag's devil that he finally became a worm, the evilest of all. He kills every human he perceives, but not his own brother to whom he did nothing. Nobody knew where he was, apart from Mymmer, his brother.

One day, Mymmer went out to the woodland for charcoal burning.
He had catering for three days. They were used to make large fires there. As Mymmer was sitting at the fire, a little nipper came running along. Mymmer sat him on his knee and asked him his name. He could not give him an answer because he could not talk. Mymmer took clothes and wrapped him because he was naked. There a hind came to Mymmer and licked the child's face and head. Mymmer recognized hereby that the hind had raised the child. He did not want to kill her for that reason. He took the child home and wanted to raise a son there since he had none, and gave him a name and called him Sigord (Sigurd). When he was nine years old, he was so large and strong that all the people were surprised at him. There he became so bad and evil that he was beating Mymmer's smithy helpers all the time, and they could not save themselves against him.

Mymmer had a young lad called Ekkia. He was the largest of the twelve who were serving him.
One day, Sigord entered the forge and came to Ekkia, but.who hit his ear with a pair of pliers. Sigord grasped his hair with his left and hit him to the ground. There all smithy helpers ran an attack against Sigord who escaped through the door and dragged Ekkia by his hair to their master.
There Mymmer said to Sigord, 'It is bad doing to beat my helpers who make doing useful works for me! You're up to do nothing else than bad things at the same time you're bragging around here. You shall learn now some qualities of working!'
He took him to the forge, put a large piece of iron into the fire and gave Sigord a hammer, the biggest he had. As the iron had become hot enough, he put it on the anvil and told Sigord to hammer. Sigord's first stroke broke the anvil's block and drove the anvil into the ground; the iron was whizzing through the forge, the pliers broke, and the hammer's handle, too.
Mymmer said, 'I've never seen a fiercer stroke! Whatever you're going to be, you'll never become a craftsman!'
Sigord went to the chamber, sat down and did not say a word.

Now Mymmer was thinking all the time how he could get rid of this guy, because he was always afraid of him.
There he went out to the woodland to meet the dragon worm who was his brother, and said to him, 'I'll send a young man to you, kill him at once when he comes!'
Thereupon Mymmer went home.
On the day after the next day, he told Sigord to go to the woodland for charcoal burning.
Sigord answered, 'If you will be later as good to me as before, I will do what you want.'
Mymmer gave him wine and meat for nine days and a big axe, and told him the way to the woodland where worm was laying.
When he entered the woodland, he lit a great fire. Then he sat down at it and begun to eat. He drank and ate his nine days catering in this one meal.
Then he talked to himself, 'Now I am really fed! Any man will hardly come right now with whom I dare not fight!'
There the big worm came.
There he said, 'It seems to me that my wish comes true! Now I will check my power.'
He sprang up to the fire, took a large log and stroke on the worm's head so that he got staggering; then he made one stroke after another till the worm was dead. Thereupon he took his axe and beheaded him.
Now he sat down again and recovered and was utterly tired. The evening was coming soon, so it was too late to return home, and he had no idea what to take for a meal. He fastened his kettle above the fire and filled it with the meat he struck off from the worm. As it got boiled, he put his hand into the kettle and wanted to taste the boiled. It was burning on his fingers. There he stuck his hand in his mouth, and the brew ran down his throat. There he understood bird language at once.
Two birds were sitting on a branch nearby.
One said, 'That man might better go home and slay Mymmer because he had sent him to die.'
There was a drop of the worm's blood on his hand which he could not wipe away because it was as hard as horn. So he undressed and purred himself wholly with the worm's blood. But a maple leaf was laying on his shoulders, so no blood could come there. Thus, his body became as hard as horn, but not there where the leaf had been laying.

Then he went home, and he had the worm's head in his hand.
When Ekkia saw it, he went to Mymmer and told him that Sigord was coming with the worm's head, 'For good advice, I know nothing else than to running into the woodland, whosoever can! Now he is so awfully angry: If we were more than twelve, he would bring us death to all of us right now.'
They all ran to the woodland apart from Mymmer who went towards Sigord and welcomed him.
Sigord said, 'You're not welcome! You will chomp this head like a dog!'
Mymmer answered: 'I am ready to pay for my commitments against you. I'll give you a helmet, shield and byrnie, which are the best of all weapons. I've made them for Herding, king of Nogard. I'll give you a stallion called Grane, raised at Brynilla's stud; and I'll give you a sword called Gram, the best of all swords!'
Sigord answered, 'Let me see the weapons!'
Mymmer went out to get the weapons. At first he gave him the leg plates, then the breastplate. Sigord armoured as fine as he could. Then he put the helmet on his head and hang the shield on his neck. Thereupon Mymmer presented him the sword. Sigord swung it and gave him the mortal stroke.

Now Sigord set off and asked the way to the virgin called Brynilla.
The stallion that Mymmer gave to him was there. He came into a woodland where he found a castle. He went to the gate, but the gate was locked. There he smashed the whole gate into bits and entered the castle in this way. There seven gate keepers crossed his way and wanted to slay him. Sigord draw his sword and struck them all to Hel (name of Germanic goddess of the Dead). There knights and squires ran to their weapons and wanted to slay him. He bravely defended himself. This was made known to Brynilla.
She said, 'I know that man! He is Sigord, son of Sigmund! If he had slain seven of my knights as he just did so to seven of my helpers, he should be welcomed to me, nevertheless!'
She went to her knights and squires, and told them to stop scuffling with him.
She asked him his name.
'My name is Sigord!'
She asked him the descent he was born of. He said he had no idea of it.
'If you don't know it, I'll tell you this: Your father is Sigmund-king, your mother is Sissibe. You are welcomed to me. What was your idea?'
'To come here!' he said, 'Mymmer, my foster-father, told me to get here a stallion called Grane. You wouldn't grudge him to me? I ask you this favour.'
'I'll give him to you if you can catch him and help you whenever I can!'
Then she sent many men to get the stallion, they were outside the whole day but could not catch him. There Sigord asked them to give him the bridle. So he went to the stallion, the stallion went towards him; then he put him on saddle and bridle, thanked the proud Brynilla and rode away as fast as he could to a land called Bertanga. There was a king called Ysung who had eleven sons. Sigord announced his service to him. The king accepted his proposal and allowed him to bear his own banner as often as he wanted to fight.

A king called Aldrian was ruling Nyfflingaland; his wife was daughter of King Yrian. Once, as she was drunk when the king was not at home in his realm, she fell asleep in her garden of grass. There a man came and loved her, and when she awoke she thought it had been Aldrian-king – whilst the man was already gone.
Soon after the queen became pregnant, at the same time as a man came to her and said, 'The child is mine you are bearing, and I am an elf. When the child grows up, tell him about his father, but don't tell it to anybody else! I believe it will be a boy; and he is going to be often in distress, a strong man against himself. Any time he has got distress and doesn't know how to help himself, he then calls his father who gives help to him as often as he needs.'
This being said, the elf disappeared like a shadow.
Thereafter the queen bore a boy and called him Hagen, son of King Aldrian. Aged four, he went out for playing with boys. He was hard and strong and of bad behaviour. Therefore, he was reproached with it, because he was rather looking like a troll than a human being.
He became angry about it and went to a mirror and sees his image. There he saw his face nasty and as pale as ash, and large and grim. Thereupon he went to his mother and questioned her on his outlook. She told him nothing but the truth and his father. There a woman was present who heard it, and she became girl-friend of Didrik of Bern later on. She told him this confidentially, and many quarrels came up for that reason.
Thereafter, King Aldrian had three sons and one daughter with his spouse, his oldest son was named Gunnar, the second Gernholt, the third Gynter (from now on: Gislher; Mb: 'Gilser'); their sister was Crimilla.
When Aldrian-king died, his oldest son Gunnar received his realm and kingdom.

King Didrik let arrange a great banquet to enjoy himself and his men, and invited the leaders of his realm, dukes and other noblemen. There he was told about a mighty fighter called Gunnar, King Aldrian's son. Thereupon he invited him and his brothers Gernholt and Hagen. They came to him and were received well. Thereafter they all were sitting on the (dais') bench, Didrik, Gunnar and Hagen, Hillebrand and Hornboge-jarl, and on the left (of Didrik) Wideke, Amlung, Detzlef the Dane, Proud Fasold, Sintram of Wenden, Wildefer, Sir Brand the Great Voyager, and Heym the Grim.
There everyone said that such fighters had never met at the same time and place.

(163–176: Descriptions of Didrik's fighters.)

Gunnar-king had curly hair, curly beard and was white-blonde, he had broad shoulders, was large and strong built and the best noble knight, was of manly appearance on horse. He was also skilled with shield and lance and shooting. He was hot-headed and impulsive, fierce against his enemies, otherwise happy and friendly.
His shield showed a coroneted eagle that was on all of his arms, since he was born of kingly descent, like the eagle that is king of all birds. He can be clearly recognized by his noble knighthood wherever he is riding.

His brother Hagen had black hair, a large nose, deeply falling eyebrows and a pale beard. His face was also pale and grim. He had one black eye. He was large and powerful. While armoured, he was grim and precious. He was strong and the best knight, and he loved to fight. He was well-understanding, clever and taciturn. He had a strong heart and stamina and a straight mind. He had the same crest as Gunnar, his brother. His shield was silver. There was custom in those times that no-one bore a silver shield who was not of kingly descent. His symbol was also an eagle, but un-coroneted.

Gernholt had the same crest as his brother King Gunnar and Hagen. He was so sprightly in all tournaments that only a few could be found as his peers.

All these men were sitting with Didrik, all of them on one bench.
King Didrik looked into both directions and said to them, 'Big power has been gathering here by these loyal heroes. What man is bold enough to dare against them? Thirteen men are sitting here. When armoured and sitting on their horses, they would be riding through the world in peace because they would never find their peers, and nobody would be bold enough to raise a lance against them. If somebody were so bold and stupid and not afraid of our big power, our sharp swords and hard helmets, hard armours and shields and quick horses, as grim as lions, and would dare to slay (these) people in their fight: he wouldn't stay alive for long.'
There Brand, the Great Voyager, answered, 'Stop, my lord! You don't know what you're talking about! You're still a child and talking more of cockiness than of experience! You will not allow anybody to be a peer!

(Continued speech of Brand:)
I will tell you about a land that is called Bretania (= Bertanga), ruled by a king called Ysung. He is the best man of all lands. He has eleven sons, each of them as strong as their father. He has a banner bearer, his name is Young-lord Sigord. He is the greatest fighter of all, in both man-to-man as well as ranks fighting. His skin is as hard as horn. He is so strong that he could tie up all of us if he were here. His sword called Gram(mer) is as good as yours, my lord. His horse is Grane, brother of Falcon ('Falke'), Skimling and Rispa. Gram is such good sword that it can split helmets and splinter men-bones.
Sigord's hair and beard is curly-golden, he has a broad and large face. His eyes are so grim that only a few men dare to look into when he is angry.
'His shoulders were as broad as of three men, and he was of suitable height. Sigord was so large that, when going through a field of ripe rye, the tip of his sword belted on his side touched the very top of the ears of the corn.'
He knows how to strike with the sword, to thrust the spear, to draw the bow; and he knows well every kind of tournament game. He is also a good horseman. He also understands bird language. He talks cocky all the time. He was used to fight on the horse and to win gold and money. He gave it to his friends along with his generosity.
His shield is of red colour, with a dragon in it, half-brown and half-red. This symbol was on all his armour. He bears the dragon because he slew the big dragon, Mymmer's brother. If all fighters were named, his peer would be never among them. He is name is known on many locations, in the north, and the west, towards the Greek Sea, all over the world!
'Believe me, my lord,' Sir Brand said, 'if you're going to fight against him, you'll see that you've never come into bigger distress, and also each of your men who desire to pass on (to Hel)!'

The king replied with great anger, 'If you were right just as you are talking about that mighty king and his sons and the sprightly banner master whom you are greatly praising, then you had to go out straight. Armour and mount your horse and take my banner in your hand, and I and my fighters will follow you. Ride ahead to Bertangaland! I will not sleep in my bed at Bern unless I know the real stronger, either we, ourselves, or those ones!'
Sir Brand armoured himself at once, mounted his horse as preciously adorned knight. He was holding the king's banner in his hand.
He stopped his horse at King Didrik's hall and shouted loudly, 'Thou mighty King Didrik of Bern – willing to ride to Bertangaland. Now I'm ready to guide thee.'

There Didrik went to his horse and sprang onto the saddle without taking the stirrup. Several of his fighters did also in this way. Now Brand rides ahead them, Didrik-king behind him with his 'Twelve'.
They were riding across large woodlands and heaths, where King Didrik has never been. They came to a large woodland called Bertanga.
There Brand turned his horse and said to the king, 'There's a large giant in this woodland, his name is Edger, brother of Widulf and Asplian. He's here at the land-guard on the road of the king, as I've told you. There's no other way for us than this one crossing this woodland – if you will actually find Ysung-king! This giant is so strong that I won't believe in his pier. Now anyone will ride ahead. I won't cross this woodland unless we all will do!'
There answered Wideke Welandsson, 'The king may stay here and all of you; I'll ride into the woodland and ask the giant for allowance to pass. I've been told that we (both) are relatives. Therefore, he might allow us to ride on. If he doesn't, I'll quickly return to you.'
The king said that this was good proposal.

(181–183: Wideke's successful fight against the giant and a special interlude wherein Wideke goes to frighten Didrik and his fellows by pretending that the giant was chasing him. Only Didrik's mind resists.)

Now they were riding through the woodland. There they saw a castle on the top of a mountain. They built their camp there, outside, close to the castle.
Young-lord Sigord was standing behind the merlons (crenels) and watched this news.
He went to the king and said to him, 'I have news appearing to me rather important than insignificant! Here, outside the castle, a tent was built up as I have not seen such one before. It has a big golden knob on its top. And there is a second tent in red, and it has also a golden knob on its top. The third tent is green. Furthermore, there are standing two tents, both in white, and there are golden knobs on them. I believe nobody has seen more precious tents. There are thirteen shields hanging in front of the first tent.'

The king said, 'Do you know some of these shields?'
'Yes', Sigord said, 'I think I should know them. There was hanging a blue shield, and a stallion was on it. Heym the Magnanimous bears it.
On the second shield was a golden hawk with two birds flying ahead of him. It belongs to one of my relatives, I guess he is Hornboge-Jarl.
On the third shield are a hammer and a pair of pliers and three carbuncle stones. This bears Wideke Welandsson.
On the fourth shield is also a lion of gold with a crown, as this bears Didrik of Bern.
On the fifth is a golden eagle with a crown, as this bears Gunnar-king.
On the sixth is also an eagle, as this bears Hagen the Hero.
On the seventh shield is a bright fire, as this bears Brand the Great Voyager.
On the eighth shield is a lion without crown, as this bears Fasold the Proud.
On the ninth shield is a dragon, brown and red, as this bears Sintram of Wenden.
On the tenth shield is a castle, formed like Bern, as this bears Master Hillebrand.
On the eleventh shield are a boar and a bear, as this bears Wildefer.
On the twelfth shield is an elephant, as this bears Detzlef the Dane.
On the thirteenth shield is a hawk, as this bears Gernholt, Hagen's brother.
'Now I believe,' Sigord said, 'that foreign fighters have come to our land, whatever they want. Let me ride to them, my lord, and find out who they are, who have built their camp so cocky at your castle, who are so haughty to come to our land without your agreement!'
The king said, 'I will not send a less worthy man, and I will demand toll and tax from them due to old tradition in order to protect their lives.'
Sigord said, 'I am to ride there, nobody else!'
(Amlung, who also accompanies King Didrik, was not mentioned in this chapter. He is son of Hornboge.)

He took weapons and bad clothes and a worthless horse and rode down the castle without a saddle, just as an underprivileged boy.
When he arrived there, he got down from his horse and entered the tent to face the lords and dukes, and said, 'Hail thou, good heroes. I would like to greet each of you by your name if I knew who you are.'
They answered and welcomed him.
Sigord asked, 'Do you want to pay any tribute as it is common here? I certainly will insist on your tribute for the king. If you would follow your own free will, you shall lose your life and goods and all you have with you!'
King Didrik answered, 'We have not come here to pay tribute to that king. My request is: I will fight against him! And before we are going to part he shall say: 'Heroes have visited him.'
Sigord answered, 'I will ask you this if you would allow so: What are your names, and where did you come from? You are about to do what nobody has ever dared before: You are offering my lord a fight in his own land. Haven't you heard about his mightiness? Nonetheless, he dares to fight against you. He doesn't care about your reputation.'
There answered Wideke Welandsson, 'Didrik of Bern is our leader, followed by a king of Nyfflingaland, Gunnar-king. Here are some more sprightly heroes, even though I will not name them; but how do you think: Will Ysung-king and Young-lord Sigord dare to fight against us?'
Sigord answered, 'Neither Ysung nor Sigord will give way to you in his own land, even though you have come from Bern. Anyway, you always have to pay kingly tribute which you are rightly obliged to him. You may do it fairly, that's no shame to you, and it will be an honour to him.'
King Didrik answered, 'Since you are so bravely reporting your order, I will certainly send tribute to him. He will get one of our horses and one of our shields! We'll throw dice for the spender!'
They threw dice. It got to Amlung, son of Hornboge. They took his horse and shield and gave them to Young-lord Sigord.
He rode shortest way to the castle.

Amlung was much regretting about his horse.
He said to Wideke Welandsson, 'Lend me out Skimling, your horse, I'll follow him!'
Wideke answered, 'If he were the man I'm thinking of, you won't get back your horse, and you might lose another!'
Amlung answered, 'If I would lose your horse, you will have my whole realm, that has twelve castles in Wendland. My father gave them to me, and you will be his heir instead of me if you wouldn't get back your horse. I either get back my horse or die hard!'
There Wideke gave Skimling horse to him.
Amlung mounts Skimling and follows Sigord rigidly.
(Old headline?)
As he had perceived him, he shouted and asked him to wait, and said, 'I want my horse back, I've to ride a long way home!'
Sigord answered, 'What man are you? Why do you talk so cocky about this horse? I think you'll never get it back!'
Amlung said, 'Get down from the horse at once, or you shall die here!'
There Sigord recognized Amlung, and he knew that he was his blood-friend.
There Sigord talked to him, 'As I can see, you're going to fight against me for this horse. Here, you certainly meet the man who dares to fight against you, but I'll do it just of necessity. If we would part in friendship and love, you would have better chance to get it back. If you are going to fight against me, you would lose also that one you're sitting on!'
Amlung said, 'I'll fight against you, whatever may come!'
Sigord answered, 'Attack me manly, I'm expecting you in coolness.'

Amlung spurred rigidly his horse and galloped hard towards him. He thrust Sigord's shield, so that the horse bend down into the reins and the lance broke.
Sigord said, 'A sprightly attack made by a young man, and there may be such blood-friends related with your family who are experienced knights. Get down from your horse, fasten the belts, and gird up your loins, for it (horse) and you, as much as you can. You'll need everything if you won't lose your horse!'
Amlung did as he said. There Sigord spurred his horse and thrust his thick lance against the mid of Amlung's shield and threw him far off.
Thereupon Sigord took Skimling and said to Amlung, 'You haven't won your horse yet, but lost the horse you've come with. That costs you a lot, as I believe he is Skimling, stallion of Wideke. And now you're going to meet his hostility. If you'd followed my advice, it hadn't happened as it came!'
Amlung answered, 'It may turn out well here, although it came bad.'
Sigord said, 'What would you give me if you'd back your horse and that one you've just lost?'
Amlung answered, 'I'll give everything I have or can do for it, and what is no shame to me and my blood-friends.'
Sigord said, 'I've asked your name just before. At that time you were so sly that you won't tell it to me. Now you ought to tell it to me if you really want to have back your horse!'
Amlung answered, 'If I'd told you my name as I was sitting on my horse under arms, my blood-friends had called me a coward on you. I don't deal with horses, money, and goods for falling in shame among noblemen!'
Sigord answered, 'I don't want to ask you. I certainly know that you are son of Sir Hornboge, my blood-friend. I'll help you for rather glory than shame. Therefore, I'll tell you my name at first: My name is Young-lord Sigord.'
Amlung answered, 'After you've told me your name without necessity, I'll tell you my name if you swear that it won't be to my shame.'
Sigord said, 'It shan't be to your shame!'
'So, my name is Amlung, son of Hornboge, and I'm your blood-friend!'
Sigord answered, 'I'll run away so that you'll win glory by this ride.'
Now Sigord got down from his horse and said, 'Dear blood-friend, take both horses, ride home and say that you've won them from me. At first, you have to bind me to this lime. Take my spear, my shield and my horse with you!'
Amlung did as he said. He bound him to the lime with a shield band. Then he took the horses and rode back to his lord.

King Didrik is outside, in front of his tent.
(Old headline.)
He said, 'Amlung comes with his horse. If he had had to do with Sigord, he couldn't have won it so quickly – if he hadn't told him that he was his blood-friend in order to receive back the horse from Sigord. He could never take the horse of Young-lord Sigord against his will!'
Now Amlung got down from the horse. They asked how he got back his horse.
Amlung answered, 'I thrust him to the ground and won my horse from him. My lance broke, but I thrust the rest against him. Then I bound him to a lime and left him; and he is still tied up there.'
There all shouted, 'You've won back your horse boldly!'
Wideke said to King Didrik, 'I'll ride to the place where that man is bound. If he is Young-lord Sigord, he let bind himself of his own will!'
King Didrik let him ride.
Wideke said, 'It's a shame to this man to be bound there! I will go and release him!'
Thereupon he rode to him. Sigord saw Wideke coming. There he tore up the band and quickly went to the castle. He did not want to wait for him. As Wideke came to the tree, he saw the bands torn up and the shield broken.
There Wideke rode home and told King Didrik that Amlung had said the truth, but he did not know better about the truth.

Now Sigord came up the castle and said to Ysung-king, 'I was at the noblemen. There I found thirteen fighters who are very noble. Their leader is King Didrik of Bern. We have heard about them; now we are going to know more about their abilities, since King Didrik has offered you a fight 'Self–Thirteen', as he is also of the same, and he has sent you a horse that I have given to my friend whom I met on my way.'
King Ysung answered, 'If he challenges me to a fight, I will be pleased to grant him the fight, and I will not hesitate to make it!'

In the next morning Ysung-king stood up and armoured with his eleven sons. Young-lord Sigord was the Thirteen's (fighter). Sigord took the king's banner and rode ahead, followed by Ysung-king and his sons. They had fine shields, shiny armour plates and helmets as smooth as glass. They had sharp swords, good spears (lances) and large well girded horses. Each of these men was a strong fighter and each of them was brave-hearted.
As they came to the tent, Ysung-king said to King Didrik, 'You are such flawless fighter as being told, and you have challenged me to a fight, so get armed quickly, come out towards me, Self–Thirteen, and let us find out the better heroes!'
King Didrik answered, 'Don't have doubts about it! I have ridden a long way to fight against you and find out whether you or we have the sharper swords or harder helmets!'
Ysung and his sons got down from their horses. Sir Didrik quickly armoured himself and went to him. They determined the twosomes and swore that they would not help each other.

(192–198: One after the other, the sons of Ysung fight against Didrik's followers.
However, the 'Berners' lose all of the first five fights:
Heym is so much beaten that he loses consciousness.
Sir Brand gets five much blooding wounds.
Wildefer loses much blood for seven large wounds.
Sintram, with his sword of Siegen–Wenden smithcraft, makes his combatant three wounds, who, nonetheless, beats him up with a shield and takes his weapons.
Fasold is so much beaten that he also loses consciousness. He is allowed to take up the fight after a break, but he finally gets defeated.
The losers are to bind to lance-shafts.
The contemporary chronicler notes: 'There were five lance-shafts driven in the ground. Ysung's men are glad because they have won much for the victory.'
Amlung states (Sv 197): 'It was a bad moment as Didrik came here – just for binding him and all his men! He should have better stayed in Bern at home and ruled his land!'
Amlung's successful fight – Fasold and Sir Brand are to be released therefore – is exceptional for the Berners, since Sigord, his cousin, has nominated for him the most 'soft-hearted' son of King Ysung.
Hornboge, his father, loses his duel for his age and strong combatant.)

There Hagen the Hero stepped forward. The eighth son of the king faced him. They fought manly. One struck on the helmet of the other one, so that the sparks were flying around and away. If there were rather dark night than (bright) day, the fire flying away from their helmets could be seen easily. None of them wanted to step back. There the son of the king struck much on Hagen and made him three large wounds. Thereupon Hagen fell, and he was bound to his lance. The king's son went to his father and said that it has to be the same with more of them.

(200–201: Detzlef must fight long against the ninth kingly son. The following day brings the decision in favour of the Dane who releases Hagen.
The losers have to spend the night being bound to the lances.
Master Hillebrand's sword breaks in the fight against the tenth son of the king.)

There King Gunnar of Nyfflingaland stepped forward. King Ysung met him. Both kings were fighting manly. None of them wanted to step back, but King Ysung was many times stronger. There King Ysung became angry because he could not make a short work of winning the fight. He struck on Gunnar's helmet that was so hard that it broke his sword into two pieces. There Ysung took a piece from a lance-shaft to which Hagen had been bound, and struck so much on Gunnar's helmet that he fell and blood was gushing from (his) nose and mouth. Thereupon Ysung bound and left him, and said that this man had successfully completed his mission here.

(203: Wideke, owner of the legendary sword Mimung, defeats the strongest kingly son, but he loses his head:
Wideke threatens to behead the defeated if all Berners were not released at once. Ysung, however, will release one man only and keeps hard line. Wideke, seemingly under delusion, now rushes to the bound Berners, smashes their lance-shafts and then hastens to kill his combatant. However, King Ysung and Sigord prevent him from doing so on request of King Didrik.
The role of Gernholt has been confined to a spectator's because he does not fight.)

Now King Didrik takes his sword Ekkysax.
(Old headline.)
He approached the place of tournament ahead all of his men. Sigord went towards him holding his sword Gram in his hands. They were facing to the bravest and fighting with great power, and they were not easy on each other. They swung their swords over their bodies with great fierce. They were beating so loudly that their friends were afraid of losing them. It was a fierce fight!
They fought the whole day. When the darkness came, Ysung-king took his shield, Wideke another one; and both stepped in and separated them.
Ysung rode home with his men, and they were utterly happy in the evening.

They returned early in the morning.
The took up their fight again, Sir Didrik and Young-lord Sigord. They fought with very best courage until both got tired. They took a short rest, lined up face to face and fought. They had such good armour that none of them got wounded. They fought the whole day until the night separated them.
Ysung rode to the castle, Didrik stayed in the tent.

Wideke talked to Didrik, 'How are you, my lord? I believe you've to fight against a brave man. Yet, nobody can see the winner, and none of you is wounded!'
Didrik answered, 'I'm wondering. His skin is so hard that my sword cannot bite into. It is harder than any armour. Would you like to give me use of Mimung Sword? I think it will bite into his skin, and he is much afraid of this sword. Today, I had to swear him an oath that Mimung wasn't in my hands!'
Wideke responded, 'Don't ask me that! I never gave Mimung to anybody, apart from Heym who had taken it away from me, and that shouldn't happen once more!'
Filled with anger, the king replied, 'Do you rank me less worthy than my groom? So we'll never become good friends!'
Wideke answered, 'If I were talking badly, I'll pay for it by lending out the sword to you, so that nobody else will know of it except we both; and it should benefit you!
Thereupon both laid down to sleep.

Early in the morning, Ysung came there with his men. Didrik stood to attention with raised sword, and sent for Sigord.
Sigord answered, 'You have to swear me an oath that you have not Mimung Sword. I will not fight against this sword!'
There Didrik swore him an oath. He placed the sword behind him, pressed it against his back, grasped its shaft, pressed its tip into the ground and prayed to God to help him that he would not know Mimung's tip above the ground as well as its handle in a man's hand.
This was well satisfying Sigord.
Thereupon they faced each other and fought. Sir Didrik did both much and hard. He took bit after bit by every stroke, as from helmet, shield, byrnie. So Sigord got five wounds. Now it crossed his mind that Didrik had sworn the oath not rightly, and he clearly recognized the blades of Mimung.
There he said to Sir Didrik, 'I'll hand over my weapons to you because you are an excellent man. It's not a shame to me to serve a man as you are, that's better than to lose my life!'
So Sigord handed over his weapons to King Didrik. Didrik made him his man, and it seemed to him that he had won a good man.
Now Sir Didrik and his men were the happiest, and they prided themselves on their adventurous ride. Ysung and his sons were utterly sad because their best fighter had not won, in whom they had the most comfort.

Didrik-king and Ysung-king made friends with themselves and gave big presents to each other. Young Sigord gave Horboge-Jarl big gifts. They had to thank Sigord who had made the match between Amlung and Ysung's daughter Walburg. She was very beautiful. Didrik-king celebrated wedding with them before he set off. It was a five days feast with flautists and wind players and a lot of round-dance-plays. Thereafter King Didrik rode away, and Sigord was following him. Amlung and his spouse were also following them. She had a lot of gold and silver with her. Didrik took the same way back. He came to Bern with all his men. He was received well there. His glory was growing more and more.
Praise on him is everywhere, and now he can lay back in his realm because nobody dared to challenge him.

King Didrik and his men have proved themselves successfully in many fights, so nobody dares to raise one's shield against them. Now everybody moved home to his realm. Hornboge-Jarl moved home to Wendland, Amlung and his spouse with him. Sintram moved to Wenden and became a duke there. Brand the Great Voyager also moved home to his realm and became a mighty duke, too.
Didrik-king and the rest of his fighters rode to Nyfflingaland with Gunnar-king. They gave Young-lord Sigord Crimilla, sister of Gunnar-king and Hagen, and the half of Nyfflingaland as dowry with her; and celebrated a five days wedding with big gift.

There Sigord talked to Gunnar-king, 'I know a virgin, the wisest and the most beautiful of the world: Her name his Brynilla. She has a castle called Seaguard. If you would court for her, I'll show you the way to her and help you as much as I can.'
Gunnar-king thanked him and said that this was good advice.
Now they prepared themselves quickly and rode on, Didrik-king and Gunnar-king and Hagen and Young Sigord; and they were not relenting until they arrived the proud Brynilla. She receives them well as it befit her, all, apart from Sigord because he had promised her not to have another woman as her. Now Sigord talked with her, and requested her to give good answer to King Gunnar.
She answered, 'Why have you kept your given word to me so badly? In this world I would never have another man as you if I had to decide.'
Sigord answered, 'It shall be as it was done. You are both sophisticated and wise. Therefore, I have come with Gunnar-king because he could have you. He is a good hero and mighty king. I took his sister for that reason, because she had so brave brothers, and we have sworn us brotherhood.'
Brynilla answered, 'Since I cannot have you – whom I love most of all people, I will even follow your advice.'
Thereupon Didrik-king and Gunnar-king went to her and made a contract about the engagement between Gunnar-king and Brynilla and to perform the immediate wedding celebration.

In the first evening (wedding night) they went to bed, bride and groom, and all had left them. There Gunnar-king took her in his arms and wanted to do due to the world's old convention and tradition. She would not in any way. They were wrestling long for it, until she took her belt and his one, bound his hands and feet, and hanged him on a girder. He hanged there all the night. At daybreak, she released him and laid him on the bed on her side. When his men came to him, he stood up and went out. He did not tell anybody what had happened to him.
In the second night, the same happened to him, in the third the same as well. On fourth day, he pretended to be happy because nobody should find out what had happened to him. There he told Young-lord Sigord what was going on with him. He trusted him well because they had sworn oaths to each other.
Sigord answered, 'She is of this nature: She is stronger than any man as long as she is virgin. If you had taken once her maidenhood, she wouldn't be stronger than any other women.'
The king answered, 'I trust no other man more than you. I also know that you are strong enough to get her maidenhood, since you might be the only man to get it. Above all, I trust in you that you keep it as a secret against anyone.'
Sigord answered, 'I like to follow your will, but don't carry malevolence after me!'
The king answered, 'It shall never happen.'
Thereupon they went to the table and were happy and went to bed.

When they had come to the bride's chamber, the king extinguished all lights and told his men to go out. There Young Sigord came (to both) in the darkness, the king went out and Sigord closed the door. Then he laid himself to the bride. Sigord covered his head with clothes. Then he took Brynilla in his arms and did at his pleasure. She did not defend against him.
In the morning, he slipped off a ring from her hand and replaced it by another one.
There Gunnar-king came in. Sigord stood up and dressed; apart from both, nobody else knew what had happened. They entered the hall and were happy and celebrated an eight days wedding. Then they rode away. Sir Didrik and his men rode home to Bern. They parted as good friends. King Gunnar and his spouse rode home to Nyfflingaland, and also Sigord and Hagen.
They all were ruling Nyfflingaland.

(213–220: Herbort and Hilda.)

(221: Didrik marries a daughter of Sir Ekkia.)

King Aktilius ('Aktilius','Atilius') was a mighty king. He was in great friendship with Ermen(t)rik-king and gave his nephew called Osid and twelve knights to Ermenrik-king. He therefore gave him his nephew called Walter, of Waldsken (Wasekenstein), who was not much aged at that time. There was a maiden called Hildegunna, daughter of the Jarl (Duke) of Greken, at Aktilius-king. She was given as hostage to him. Walter loved her very much.
(An Islandic text of Thidreks saga notes King Ermenrik as ruler of Puli at that time. Walter was the son of a sister of him, and he was aged 12 winters when he was transferred. The Islandic text also forwards that he stayed 7 winters at Aktilius, and that Hildigunna (Hildegund), daughter of Ilias of Greken, came to Aktilius at an age of 7 winters as Walter had spend two winters at his residence.)

Once Aktilius-king had many guests, and there was much enjoyment with dance and manifold games. Walter was holding the hand of the maiden and said to her, 'What do you like better: To come with me or to keep serving King Aktilius?'
She answered, 'If you are serious, I would like to have nobody else than you!'
He replied, 'May God be with me as honestly as I will be with you.'
The maiden said that she would follow well to his will.
He said, 'Come tomorrow at daybreak to the gate at the hidden place, and get your gold and silver and your garments!'
She said that she would do so. The king did not hear of it before both had gone. Then the gate-keeper came to him and told it.

Hagen was at Aktilius-king at that time, and he was quite young just then.
The king said to him, 'Ride out and follow the maiden and Walter!'
He gave him eleven knights. They rode fast on the trail of Walter. When Walter realized them, he got down his horse and helped her to get down also. Then he quickly mounted the horse and tied up the helmet on his head.
The maiden said, 'That's big disaster because you are going to fight against twelve! So flee and save your life!'
Walter answered, 'Don't cry maiden. I am used to see splintering helmets, armours, and shields and some beheaded man falling down from the horse. I often took part in that. So I am not afraid of these twelve.'
Then he harshly rode against them, and they were fighting for a long time. Walter stroke the twelve to Hel (name of Germanic goddess of the Dead) and Hagen fled into a forest nearby.

Walter entered this forest, and the maiden was with him. He made a fire for a meal. As Walter was sitting and eating a haunch from a wild boar, Hagen came with drawn sword and ran towards Walter.
The maiden called, 'Attention, milord! Here comes one of your enemies!'
Walter sprang up and took the haunch and hit it against Hagen's eyes so that one eye sprang out and he fell down. Then Hagen sprang up and mounted his horse and rode home to Aktilius-king and said him the latest, as he had lost one of his eyes. Walter rode to Ermenrik-king and he was welcomed to him, and he stayed there for a long time.

(226–228: Jarl Iron.)

(229: Duke Ake's Death.)

(213–290: Didrik in Exile.)

In those times a king was in Nyfflingaland {on the castle Verniza} called Gunnar, and his brothers were on his side: Hagen, Gernholt, and Gislher; and their brother-in-law, Young-lord Sigord. He was the best fighter to know and talk about in those days. He had Crimilla, their sister. They all had one realm and were mighty fighters, and nobody dared to quarrel with them. Sigord was much stronger than each of them. His skin was as hard as dragon scales, and no weapon could bite into him, apart from one spot between his shoulders.

One day, Queen Brynilla, spouse of King Gunnar, entered a hall (the great hall).
Crimilla was sitting there, ahead of her, and she would not stand up.
Brynilla reacted, 'Are you so bold as brass that you won't stand up for me, the queen above you?'
Crimilla answered, 'I'll tell you why I'm doing so: You are sitting on my father's high chair where I am to sit!'
The queen answered, 'That's true, your father and mother had this castle and land. Nonetheless, that's mine now, but not yours! You might better run into the woodland to Young-lord Sigord and follow him than to be queen in Nyfflingaland.'
Crimilla answered, 'You're reproaching me with dishonour, whereas I believe to be honoured with: Young-lord Sigord, my spouse. Now you're going to play a bad game; so I'll ask you something else: Tell me, who has taken your maidenhood?
Brynilla answered, 'I'll tell it to you, I hope that's no shame to me. It was the rich Gunnar-king, your brother! He came to my castle, Didrik of Bern and some other noblemen and dukes did accompany him, and he made wedding celebration with me at big gift. He took my maidenhood and no other than he!'
Crimilla answered, 'You've told me a lie! Young-lord Sigord took your maidenhood!'
Brynilla replied, 'I've never become Sigord's spouse, and he never me!'
Crimilla answered, 'Here's the golden ring he took from your hand when he had taken your maidenhood!'

When Brynilla heard this and saw the ring, she certainly became aware of the gist and deeply regretted to have been reproached. She got swollen as red as blood, left the hall without a word, and went out the castle. There she met Gunnar-king, Hagen and Gernholt. She went to them crying, tearing up her clothes.
King Gunnar and his brothers had been in the woodland for hunting. They asked what had happened to the queen and why she was crying so much.
The queen said to Gunnar-king, 'You certainly know how I gave up my own land and castle, and my friends and relatives. Therefore, it is you who must take revenge for insulting me! If you will not avenge my insult, then avenge what has happened to you. Young-lord Sigord has deceived you into good faith, because he told his spouse the secret things between us. Today, she brought reproach upon me that you haven't taken my maidenhood, and now my grief is so deep that I can never get it over.'
Hagen answered, 'Don't cry, queen! Do as nothing has happened and don't talk about it any longer!'
'When Young-lord Sigord came to us,' she said, 'he was homeless and didn't know neither father nor mother. Now he's so brass that he's going to be above all of us.'
There Gunnar-king answered, 'Don't cry, Queen! Young-lord Sigord will not be our master for long, and my sister Crimilla not your queen.'

King Gunnar and his brothers rode into the castle and did not talk about it. Young-lord Sigord was not there because he was hunting. Yet, in the evening on the following day, he returned. Gunnar and his brothers received him well. They drank a lot in the evening and were happy. The queen was much in grief.
One day, Hagen said to Gunnar-king, 'Do you like to ride to the woodland for hunting?'
The king agreed.
There Hagen went to the cook, 'Get prepared our meals tomorrow morning and salt it as much as you can. Give Sigord the most salted!'
Thereupon he went to the beverage keeper and said, 'Tomorrow, when we're eating, arrange to bring us not much to drink.'
They did not talk more about it.

In the early morning of next day, Gunnar asked them to come to the table, Hagen and his brother.
There Young-lord Sigord came along and asked, 'Why do you eat so early? Where do you want do ride?'
The king answered, 'Well, we want to ride, have fun and a hunt. Do you want to go with us?'
Sigord answered, 'I would like to accompany you.'
The king said, 'So, go to the table and take a meal!'
The cook and the beverage keeper had done as they had been told. When they had eaten enough, they rode out to the woodland and let run their dogs.
When Sigord left the castle, Crimilla went to sleep in her bed because she would not keep Brynilla company. Brynilla had even requested Hagen, before he rode out, to arrange that Sigord should not return, unless he would be slain this day. She would give him as much gold and silver for it as she could. Hagen answered, 'Sigord is such strong fighter that I'm not sure to be able to kill him; but I will try it.'
Thereupon they rode into the woodland and met game; and Young-lord Sigord was the sprightliest every time, as he was used to be always before. Hagen shot a spear through a boar; they cut it up and gave the guts to the dogs. Thereafter they were so hot and thirsty that they almost lost consciousness.
There was water bubbling. King Gunnar and Hagen laid down to drink. There Sigord came and did the same. There Hagen stood up, took his spear with both hands and shot it amid his shoulders, so that it came out the heart.
As Sigord felt the stitch he said, 'I haven't expected that from my brother-in-law, this way you have done to me. If I were standing on my feet, rather my shield and helmet were smashed and my armour broken and my sword splintered, and you were laying at my feet on all fours, than one of you had made me the mortal wound.'
That was Sigord's death.
There Hagen said, 'We're hunting a boar all the day, and we all by four could hardly catch him; but now I've been hunting alone, such as bear and wisent (bison), the fiercest of all game!'
There Gunnar answered, 'You certainly have hunted well, and we'll bring home this bear to our sister Crimilla.'

So they took the corpse to the castle. There, high above, Brynilla was standing and saw her spouse and his brothers coming, and they brought the dead Sigord with them. There she went out towards them and congratulated them – they all were hunting most manly – and should lay him into Crimilla's arms.
'She lays asleep in her bed. There they go, as they have deserved!'
When they came to Crimilla's door, it was locked. They smashed the door and threw the corpse into her arms. She woke up of it and saw Sigord dead on her side.
There Crimilla said, 'Your wound appears severe to me! How did you get it, while your gold plated shield stands not broken, your helmet not smashed here. You must have been murdered for that reason! If I knew who it was, I would take once revenge.
There Hagen replied, 'He wasn't murdered! We're hunting a wild boar that struck him the mortal wound.'
Crimilla answered, 'Hagen, you was that wild boar, and nobody else!' and she burst out crying bitterly.
They left her and went into the great hall and did as being happy and joyful, and Brynilla, too, was happy above all.
Thereupon Crimilla sent for his servants and arranged to bury his corpse in the best way she could.
All, who have been told that Young-lord Sigord was slain, said that never, since the world is real, anyone was born who was equal in strength, manliness, devotion, and any kind of chivalrousness and generousness whereat Sigord had the edge on all. His name will never be forgotten as long as the world is real.

(297–301: Herding's fight against Ysung; Osta(n)cia.)

When Aktilius, King of Hunland ('Hymaland'), was lonesome for a long time and heard about Young Sigord's death and Crimilla, the most beautiful and wisest of all women, survives him, he sent a message to his nephew Osid-Duke and requested to come to him. As he heard this, he set off to him at once with twenty noble knights. Aktilius received him well and told him to bring his message to Crimilla, King Gunnar's sister and Young Sigord's widow, in order to courting for her. The duke said he would like to go where the king would send him to; and went out with thirty noble knights and squires, and found Gunnar-king (Mb: 'in Vernica'). They were received well there. They stayed there for several days.
One day, he talked with Gunnar-king and his brothers and told them how much he was courting for their sister Crimilla, and asked what (dowry) they would give with her. Furthermore, they should give him an immediate answer about their intentions. They replied that they would like to keep this in mind and do their best, since Aktilius is richest and mightiest king to tell about.
There Hagen said, 'It were great honour to us if mighty Aktilius would be engaged to our sister. She is so high-minded, however, that it would be unseemly to grant her without her agreement.'
Gernholt answered, 'I agree with it.'
Thereupon Gunnar-king went to Crimilla and asked whether she wanted to have Aktilius-king.
She answered, 'I don't dare to refuse myself to Aktilius-king, because he is a rich and manly king. If you will, my brothers, so it will be my good will.'
They answered, 'Is it your will, so it is our will.'
They made a contract to agree with Aktilius.
Gunnar-king had Sigord's helmet and shield; he gave them to the messenger.
Thereupon the rode home and told the king which answer they had received.

The king thanked them and prepared soon as fine as he could, and went to Nyfflingaland with four hundred knights and many squires. Didrik-king accompanied him.
When King Gunnar heard about this, he rode towards them and received them well. Didrik-king and Hagen kissed each other as they met, because they were good friends. Thereupon they all rode to the castle (Mb: 'Vernica Castle').
There Gunnar-king and his brothers gave their sister to Aktilius-king; and they celebrated a fine wedding. Thereupon they parted.
Gunnar-king gave Grane, Young Sigord's horse, to Didrik; and Gram, the sword, to Margrave Rodger King Aktilius gave Crimilla as much silver as it befit her; and so they parted. Aktilius-king and Didrik rode home to their realm.
Nonetheless, Crimilla was crying over the death of her spouse Sigord all the time.

When Crimilla had King Aktilius seven years for spouse, she said to him one night, 'Milord, it is large harm that I haven't seen my brothers for seven years. At what time do you want to invite them? I'll tell you something you've certainly heard never before, that Sigord, my spouse, was richest lord of gold and goods, as no king at present. My brothers are keeping all that now, and won't give anything to me. If I would get it, you could have anything from it!'
As Aktilius-king heard this he conceived that it was true – and he was most desirable man of all; it seemed bad to him that he should not get the Nyfflings Hoard – and said,
'Milady, I know that Young Sigord had much gold: At first, that what he took from the great dragon whom he slew, further, what he won by fighting, and, in addition, that what his father King Sigmund had. There is now opportunity to recommend inviting them, your brothers, if you want. All my goods shall not be spared them.'

Soon after, Crimilla sent out two of her men with Aktilius-king's letter of this wording, 'Aktilius-king is quite old, but his son Aldrian rather too young; so none of both is next to rule the land than those who are the brothers of Aldrian's mother. Therefore, they would invite them to come here to help with advice for the land's best!'
As Gunnar-king and his brother Hagen and the rest took notice from the letter, Hagen said, 'Brother, if you're going to Hunaland, you'll never come home and none of them who are following you, because Crimilla is clever and fake; and I have a feeling that she's going to cheat us.'
Gunnar-king answered, 'Aktilius, my brother-in-law, has invited me on good terms. However, that's just your advice for me not to go there. That's how you give advise to me, as your mother did to my father, and every time the next advice was worse than the previous. Therefore, I do not consider your advice, rather I will go to Hunaland and hope to come back well upon my will. I'll get Hunaland completely under my control before I'll set off there. Hagen, follow me if you want! If you don't dare to follow me, you should better stay at home!'
Hagen answered, 'I didn't say that for that reason! I'm not more afraid of losing my life than you, but I'll tell you this for sure: You'll never come out of Hunaland, and if you go there with either a few or many, none of all won't come back to Nyfflingaland. If you will go, I'll be at home! Do you have forgotten how we parted from Young Sigord? I know someone who still thinks of it. She is Crimilla, our sister. She certainly remembers you when you come to Susa.'
King Gunnar answered, 'If you were so much afraid of your sister that you won't dare to go, so I will go!'
There Hagen felt reproached with facing him up by his mother's advise given to him, and left them for the great hall to see his blood-friend Folkward-Speleman and said to him, 'Do you want to go with us to Hunaland, as King Gunnar has decided due to Crimilla's message? All our men, who are bold enough to fight, will go with us!'

There Queen Oda, mother of King Gunnar and Gislher, went to the king and said, 'I was dreaming of so much dead birds in Hunalandm whilst our land was emptied of birds. Now you will go to Hunaland, and I know that your ride will cause much disaster, both Nyfflings and Hunas ('Hymlingas', 'Hymas'), and that will cost the lives of many a man. Don't go there – there will come out a lot!'
There said Hagen, 'Gunnar-king has finalized this ride. We don't need your old women dreams!'
There the queen answered, 'Gunnar-king and you may go to Hunaland if you want, but my young Gislher ought to stay at home!'

Gunnar-king gave public notice all over his land that all his strongest and sprightliest men should get prepared and armed as much as they could. There Gunnar-king became ready for departure with thousand sprightly men, well armoured and with well-tended horses.
There Hagen took Gunnar-kings banner, that was golden on its front side, white in the mid, an eagle with a crown of red silk therein, and that was green on outside.
So they rode to the Rhine, where the Duna meets the Rhine.
There was broadness to ferry across, but no ship. So they stopped there, and were staying in their tents in the night.

In the evening, satiated with food, King Gunnar asked Hagen to go that guarding which he thought best.
Hagen answered, 'Send someone upstream the troops, whoever you like; I'll be on the guard downstream and I'm going to get a ship.'
Gunnar-king was pleased with it.
When the folk had gone to sleep, Hagen took all his weapons and went downstream in brightest moonshine. He came to water called Maere and saw some folk in the water and their clothes laid down nearby. He took the clothes and hided them. Those were no other people than two water nymphs who had come from the Rhine to this lake just for fun.
The water nymph said to Hagen, 'Give us back our clothes!'
He answered, 'Tell me at first what I'm asking you: Would we cross the Rhine and came back alive?
The water nymph answered, 'All of you shall cross the Rhine without harm, but nobody comes back; and great effort and toil is awaiting you!'
There Hagen drew his sword and slew the water nymphs, he struck them right into halves, both, mother and daughter.

Thereupon he went down the river. There he saw a man rowing in the middle of the river.
Hagen called him and said, 'Row to me! I belong to Elsung-Jarl!'
He said so because he had entered Elsung's realm.
The ferryman answered, 'I won't ask you whom you're belonging to. I'll ferry everybody who gives money to me!'
There Hagen raised his golden ring and said, 'Look, I'll give you this one!'
When the ferryman saw the golden ring, he rowed to the bank where Hagen was waiting. There Hagen came on board the vessel and pushed off.
The ferryman wanted to row downstream, but Hagen said, 'You have to row upstream.'
There he had to row on Hagen's demand (Mb: 'and both were rowing') till they came to the troops.

There King Gunnar stood up, put on his clothes and told to bring across the folk with a little ship; and a part of his folk had already gone forward.
There Hagen came with the larger ship. There Gunnar came on board and one hundred men with him. When they came to the middle of the river, Hagen was rowing so strong that he broke both oars. He sprang up and damned the oar maker, drew his sword and beheaded the ferryman.
There Gunnar-king said, 'Why did you do it, Hagen? What blame did you put on him?'
Hagen answered, 'He shall not tell where we are going to!'
There Gunnar-king said with big anger, 'You're never delighted unless you're doing something evil!'
Hagen answered, 'Why should I hold back doing evil on my way? Since I know that none of us will return!'
The king was now the steersman. There the steering (Mb: 'steering belt') broke. Then the ferry was drifting crossways the current. There Hagen sprang up to trouble for the steering and repaired as much as he could. As they came to the bank, the ferry was flooding and capsized with them; and they came ashore, got soaked and in big distress.
Thereupon they rode their way ... (Missing source text.)

(311–315: Missing source text. Mb 367–373 are replacing this gap. Mb-Translation in present tense.)

Mb 367.
They lay down to rest in the evening and let Hagen guarding. When all men were asleep, Hagen goes scouting alone far from the crowd. He comes to a place where a man is laying asleep, he is under arms and has put his sword underneath his body and its handle juts out. Hagen grasps the sword and pulls it out and throws it away. He kicks the man's side with his right foot and tells him to awake. This man springs up and looks for his sword.
He is missing it and shouted, 'I'm going to suffer of that sleep I took! Now troops have come into the land of my lord, Rodger-Margrave! I was guarding three days and three nights, and therefore I fell asleep!'
Hagen talked with him and judges him a good broadsword, 'You'll be a good broadsword. Look at my golden ring, I'll give it to you for your manliness; and you will be pleased with it better than its donee before. So I give you back your sword.'
And so he does.
Now that man answers, 'Have much Goodness. Thanks for your gift; at first, that you gave me my sword, and, then, your golden ring.'
Then Hagen said, 'Don't be afraid of these troops if you are keeping the land of Rodger-Margrave. He is our friend. King Gunnar of Nyfflingaland and his brothers are ruling our folk. Tell me also, good broadsword, where to go for accommodation for the night. What is your name?'
'My name is Eckivard,' he said, 'and now I'm wondering how you've come along here because you are Hagen, Aldrian's son, who has killed my lord, Young-lord Sigord. As long as you are in Hunaland: Look out! Many people are keeping here hostility against you. I can tell you no better hostel for the night than Bakalar, place of Margrave Rodger; he is a good chieftain.'
There Hagen said, 'You've told to go as we've planned. Ride home to the castle now, and tell that we'll come there. Tell also that we got totally soaked!'

Mb 368.
Now they part, and Eckivard rides home. Hagen returns to his men, tells Gunnar-king everything what happened to him and tells them to get up quickly and ride to the castle. And they do so.
Eckivard rides home to the castle as quickly as he can. When he enters the great hall, Margrave Rodger has already taken his meal and intends to go to bed. Then Eckivard says that he has met Hagen and Gunnar-king has come with a lot of folk, and will ride there for lodging. Rodger-Margrave stands up, calls all his men to him and tells them to prepare everything as best and most preciously. Thereupon Margrave Rodger himself gives order to bring his horse, as he intended to ride towards them with many knights. All his men are working and preparing now. And when Margrave Rodger rides out of the castle, Gunnar-king comes towards him with all his folk. Margrave Rodger welcomes the Nyfflings and invites them to come to him for accommodation, and Gunnar-king is pleased to agree with. Hagen wishes Eckivard to receive great reward for the mission he has rendered.

Mb 369.
Now the Nyfflings come in the courtyard of Rodger-Margrave and get down from their horses, and the men of Rodger-Margrave welcome and host them well. And, as Eckivard has already told them, Margrave Rodger orders to make two good fires outside in the courtyard, because they got soaked. And by one fire are sitting Gunnar-king and Hagen and their brothers and some of their men, and other men by the other fire. And those who have been drying follow the margrave into the hall, and he shows them their benches. Now the Nyfflings undress in front of the fire.
Then Gudelinda, spouse of the margrave and sister of Duke Naudung who fell at Gronsport, saiys, 'The Nyfflings have come here with some shiny byrnie, some hard helmet, sharp sword and new shield; and there most reason for mourning that Crimilla is weeping every day for her spouse, Young Sigord.'
As those fires we have burned down, ('Gunnar-') Gunnar-king, Hagen and their brothers go into the hall, sitting there in the evening, being very content and drinking with greatest pleasure. And then they go to sleep.
Rodger-Margrave lays in his bed with his wife and they are talking to each other.
There Rodger-Margrave said, 'Milady, what should I give Gunnar-king and his brothers which would be worthy to accept and honouring me?'
She answers, 'Whatever appears right to you, my lord. My advice will be as yours in this matter.'
And Rodger-Margrave talked once again, 'I will tell you about Young Gislher, as he is subject to advice and choice: I will give him my maiden daughter as the first gift.
Now Gudelinda answered, 'It is good form to give him our daughter when he could love her, but I am fearing otherwise.'

Mb 370.
Now it is a bright day, and Rodger-Margrave stands up and dresses, and his knights do the same. There the Nyfflings stand up and call for their dresses. Rodger-Margrave requests them to stay for some days, but the Nyfflings want to go out now and will not stay. There Rodger-Margrave says that he likes to ride with them and all his knights, too. And now they go to the table, drink good wine and are very content. There are manifold games and other special entertainment.
Now Rodger-Margrave orders to bring in a helmet, adorned with gold and jewels, and gives it to Gunnar-king; and he thanks very much for this gift that he estimates as a great gem. Then Rodger-Margrave takes a new shield and gives it to Gernholt.
Thereupon the margrave presents his daughter to Gislher and says, 'Good Sir Gislher, I wish to give you this maid for your wife, if you would like to accept her.'
Gislher answers and requests to give the maiden to him, the happiest of all men, and he will accept her thankfully.
Furthermore, Rodger-Margrave talks, 'Look here, Young-lord Gislher, I will give you a sword called Gram, it was Young Sigord's. This one, I believe, is the best of all weapons you have at yours.
And, once again, Gislher thanks for this gift, and wishes him to receive Gift of God for all respect he has paid to him on this ride.
Now Rodger-Margrave talked to Hagen, 'Good friend Hagen, which gem do you see here you like most to have?'
There Hagen answers, 'It seems to me,' he says, 'that a shield hangs here, dark-blue of colour, large and hard, wearing much signs of strokes: I would take it as a gift.'
There answers Rodger-Margrave, 'It so happens well, since a good hero had this shield, Duke Nodung (Naudung), and it got strong strokes with Mimung's blades before he fell by Widga the Strong.'
As Lady Gudelinn (Gudelinda) hears this, she begins to weep bitterly for her brother Nodung. Now this shield is handed over to Hagen!
They all thank Rodger-Margrave very much for his gifts and well-doings.
When they had taken their meal, they get their horses, prepare and armour themselves. Rodger-Margrave did the same, and also his bravest (MS. A: 'seven of his bravest') knights, and ride out the castle when all are ready. There Lady Gudelinn wishes farewell to them and to return in honour and glory. And the margrave kisses his Lady Gudelinn before he rides out, and tells her to reign well his realm until they meet again.

Mb 371.
Now there is nothing more to tell than they are riding day after day. There is wet weather with strong wind on the day they came closer to Susa; and the clothes of all Nyfflings are wet now. While passing a castle called Thorta, a messenger rides towards them. He was sent out to Bakalar by Aktilius-king in order to invite Rodger-Margrave to the banquet, riding straight towards his men.
And, as they meet, the margrave asks, 'What is the news from Susa?'
That man answers, 'This is the newest from Susa: The Nyfflings have come into Hunaland, and Aktilius arranges a banquet for them; and I was sent towards you to invite you to this banquet. Yet, I will return and ride now with you, because my mission is accomplished.'
He turns around and rides with Rodger-Margrave.
There Rodger-Margrave talks with the messenger, 'How big is the banquet that Aktilius-king intends to arrange, and how many men has he invited thereto?'
The messenger answers, 'It seems to me that there are not less men on your ride than Aktilius-king has some man invited to the banquet. However, Queen Crimilla has announced half times more of her friends; and she has been collecting men everywhere in her realm, those ones who like to support her. And it has been arranged so much for this banquet that a large mass of folk will come there and this event last for a long time.
Rodger requests this man riding ahead to the castle and announce the arrival of the Nyfflings and Margrave Rodinger (= Rodger) at Aktilius' castle. Now the king let announce in the whole castle that every house has to be prepared, some with tents, and to make good fire in many others. And now, there is much preparation in Susa Castle.
Now Aktilius-king talked to Didrik-king and requests him riding towards them. And now, he does so and rides out with his men. And as they meet, each welcome the other warmly, and they ride all together to the castle.

Mb 372.
Queen Crimilla is standing on a tower, watching the line of her brothers, observing them riding into the castle. Now she realizes some polished byrnie and some precious hero down there.
Now she said, 'We have a green summer now, a beautiful one, and now my brothers are riding in some polished byrnie, and now I remember in grief the large wound of Young Sigord!'
Now she utterly weeps for Young Sigord, and goes to meet the Nyfflings and welcomes them, and kisses the one who is next to her, one after another.
Now the castle is almost full of men and horses; yet, outside Susa were already some hundreds of men and horses, so that they could hardly be counted.

Mb 373.
Aktilius-king welcomes his brothers-in-law warmly and they follow him to the halls being already prepared, and he arranges to make a good fire for them. However, the Nyfflings do not remove their byrnies and do not put aside their weapons.
Now Crimilla enters the hall where her brothers are standing before the fire and drying themselves. She observes them lifting their kilts, and shiny byrnies are underneath.

316. When Hagen saw his sister Crimilla, they put on their helmets and fastened them, he and Folkward-Speleman.
There Crimilla said to Hagen, 'Well, do you have brought me the Nyfflings Hoard that was Young Sigord's?'
Hagen answered, 'I bring you a big un-friend! My shield and my helmet follow him, and I will not lay down my armour!'
There King Gunnar said, 'Sister, come here and sit with us!'
There she went to her youngest brother Gislher and kissed him and sat down between King Gunnar and him and cried bitterly.
There Gislher asked, 'Why are you so crying, sister?'
She answered, 'I'm in grief, now and all the time, for the large wound I saw between Sigord's shoulders, but there was no notch on his shield.'
There Hagen answered, 'Think no longer of Young Sigord or his wound, rather give more love to Aktilius, because he is half times richer and mightier than Sigord was. You can never bring him back. It will be as it was done to Sigord's wound.'

There Crimilla went out and thereupon Didrik of Bern came to the Nyfflings and requested them to go to the table; and Aldrian, Aktilius' son, followed him.
There King Gunnar took Aldrian in his arms and brought him out. Didrik-king and Hagen were even hugging in friendship as they guided each other to enter King's Hall.
There were all towers and merlons full of women and maidens, and they all wanted to see Hagen for his much famousness and manliness that had become known all over the world.

King Aktilius was sitting on his high chair at the centre of the table, and showed King Gunnar to sit on his right, next to him Gislher, Hagen, Folkward-Speleman, their blood-friend. He showed Didrik of Bern to sit on his left, next to him Margrave Rodger followed by Hillebrand.
Thereupon all the other noblemen sat down one after another, and drank good wine in the evening. And they were hosted well with any kind of dish and wine, and were much happy from now on. There was every house full of folk. They were sleeping well that night.
In the morning, when they stood up, Didrik-king of Bern and Hillebrand and some other noble knights came to them, and Didrik of Bern asked them whether they had slept well.
There Hagen answered, 'We all slept well; but I haven't too much happiness on my mind.'
There Didrik-king of Bern said, 'My good friend Hagen, be up and about, but keep yourself under control much as you can! You'll need all of your capabilities if you want to go back! Crimilla cries every day for Sigord's death!'
That was the first warning the Nyfflings received.
When they had dressed, they went out into the court.
King Didrik and Gunnar-king accompanied each other; Hillebrand and Hagen took another way. Folkward followed them.
There all Nyfflings were up, went out and had a look around the castle.
There Aktilius-king left the hall with some other men for watching the proud manner of the Nyfflings. There all the people asked for Hagen, because he was so renowned for his manliness.
There Aktilius tried to recognize him, but he could not for sure because Hagen and Folkward-Speleman were as preciously dressed as Gunnar-king – even more Hagen and Folkward were helmeted all the time.
There Aktilius-king said, 'I cannot recognize Hagen now. Nonetheless, I myself and Queen Ercha conferred knighthood on him. I knew him well at that time when he was my good friend.'
There Hagen and Folkward went along, one guiding the other through the castle, and they saw some proud women who had a glance at them; so they took off their helmets to allow a look at themselves. Hagen had these characteristic features: He had small heaps and broad shoulders, a long face as pale as ash, and he had one eye only that was absolutely black; and he was the manliest of all men.

Aktilius recognized the largeness of the folk; altogether, they could not find enough space in one hall. Since there was good sunshine, he told to arrange the banquet in a tree garden.
There Crimilla went to Didrik of Bern.
He received her well.
She was crying when she answered, 'My dear friend Didrik, I have come to ask you advice and help; to avenge my deepest grief for that murderous slaying of Sigord. I will avenge on Hagen, Gunnar and all those brothers. Dear lord, help me to avenge! I will give you gold and silver as much as you want. Furthermore, I will help you to win back your own land, of course.'
Didrik answered, 'Milady, certainly not! If anybody would do so, it will be against my advice and will, because they are my best friends. It is rather to me to find out their benefit than their detriment.'
Crimilla did not answer and went out crying.
She entered the hall to see Duke Osid and said, 'Will you help me to avenge my grief? I'm in grief for way the Nyfflings had slain Young Sigord. Now I will avenge it upon them if you would help me! I will give you a large land for it, wherever you like to have it.'
Osid answered, 'If I were doing so, I would be an enemy of Aktilius-king because he is a good friend of them.'
There the queen went to Aktilius-king and talked as she did before, 'Milord, where is that gold and silver my brothers had brought to you?'
Aktilius answered, 'They brought me neither gold nor silver. I like to receive them well, the more here in my own land.'
The queen answered, 'Who will avenge my suffering if not you? I never forgive them the way of murdering Sigord. I feel agony in my heart for that reason. Get on with it well, milord, and avenge it! You will receive Nyfflingaland and the whole Nyfflings Hoard for it!'
The king answered, 'Shut up! I will not cheat my brothers-in-law; they came here in good faith! Neither you nor any man shall do it!'
There Crimilla went out, much sadder than before.

The king went into the apple garden and told all guests to come there.
There the queen said to the Nyfflings, 'As you can see, all Hunas have put aside their weapons. I demand you, Nyfflings, to hand over your weapons to my charge.'
Hagen answered, 'You're a queen, you're not entitled to keep a man's weapons! When I was young, my father thought me to give never my weapons to a woman's charge; and I never put aside my weapons as long as I am in Hunaland!'
Thus, he fastened his helmet as much as possible.
There everybody perceived that Hagen was enormously enraged, but nobody knew the reason.
There Gernholt said, 'Hagen has never been delighted since his departure for this ride, and his manliness and cleverness will become visible today.'
There it crossed Gernholt's mind that this ride had to do with a cheat, and that Hagen knew it and kept it as a secret against him; and he fastened his helmet, and so he went into the tree garden.

There Aktilius-king saw that Hagen was filled up with anger and fastened his helmet; and he asked Didrik, 'Who are those that are fastening their helmets so angrily?'
Didrik answered, 'They are Hagen and his brother Gernholt, both are angry.'
The king answered, 'They do it for great indignation.'
Didrik answered, 'They are perfect heroes; and – if it is going on as I believe – you will see accordingly today.'

Aktilius-king stood up and went to Gunnar-king and Gislher, and took Gunnar-king with his right hand and Gislher with his left hand, and called Hagen and Gernholt, and placed them to sit down at the table, and they all as being announced before.
However, there were many good fires in the garden and tables around these fires.
All Nyfflings were in the garden with shiny byrnies and sharp swords and hard helmets.
Their squires were keeping shields and spears outside before the garden; and they had ordered fifteen servants on Hagen's advice to spy out the Hunas for raising cheat.
The tutor of the kingly son was sitting next to Folkward-Speleman, and the queen told to place her chair right oppositely to the king. Duke Osid was sitting next to her.
There the queen went to a noble knight called Irung who was captain of her warriors, and said to him, 'Good friend Irung, do you want to avenge my suffering, since neither Aktilius-king nor Didrik of Bern nor anyone else of my friends will avenge upon it?'
Irung answered, 'Why are you crying, or what will you avenge?'
She answered, 'I never forget the way of murdering Young Sigord, and I will avenge him if anyone would help me to do it!'
She took his gold plated shield and said to him, 'If you would avenge my suffering, I will give you as much as finest ('red') gold as you can carry, and also my friendship forever!'
Irung answered, 'That's much gold, but your friendship is better!' and stood up at once and got armoured with a hundred of knights, his followers, and unrolled his banner.
There Crimilla said, 'At first, strike to Hel all their folk that are outside the garden and make sure that none of them gets in or out!'

The queen went quickly to sit again on her chair.
There her son Aldrian came running and kissed her.
There the queen said, 'Dear son, you're up to your blood-friends and brave-hearted enough to go to Hagen and give him sudden strong knock at his chin with your fist! If you dare, you will become a good hero!'
The boy ran to Hagen at once; and when he was bending over the table, Aldrian gave him such strong punch on his chin that an elder boy could be hardly credited with doing so.
There Hagen grasped the hair of the midget with his left hand and said, 'You didn't do that at neither your father's nor own discretion, rather your mother's incitement! You have to pay for it now!'
And he drew the sword with his right and struck off the gnome's head and threw that against Crimilla's breast, and said, 'Lady, there you go with a bitter apple! We're drinking good wine in this garden, and we'll pay much for it!'
Thereafter he swung his sword over Folkward-Speleman for a stroke that beheaded also the boy's tutor, and he said to Crimilla, 'Take this payment for your wine! And you, tutor, have got your deserts because you haven't taught the child to do better!'
There Aktilius-king sprang up and cried out, 'Up, up, all my men – slay the Nyfflings!'
There all the men of Aktilius sprang up to their weapons, and the Nyfflings drew their swords.
Crimilla had ordered to lay out bloody hides on the ground: If the Nyfflings would run over them, they would slip on them and fall.
Irung and his men were in front of them who slew some good man, as the Nyfflings slew some men from the Hunas in the garden, so that some hundred of them were laying dead in the garden.

When the Nyfflings realized that all their men were slain outside the garden, they withdrew and violently fought against those who were in the garden, and they struck to Hel every human being who could not escape.
Aktilius was standing on a tower and told all his men to press forward boldly and slay the Nyfflings. Didrik-king went home to his hostel with all his men, and he was very sad that so many of his friends on both sides were slaying each other.
However, the queen was busy all the day and gave helmets, byrnies, shields and swords to Aktilius' men, and promised them much gold, and drove them to kill the Nyfflings.
Now a hard fight began.
The Hunas boldly attacked the garden, and the Nyfflings defended the garden. The garden was called (later) Horn Garden, and now it is called Nyfflings Garden (Mb: 'Nyfflings-Horn-Garden').
There many of the Hunas and Nyfflings fell, and half time more Hunas than Nyfflings.

There all Hunas pressed forward, coming from counties and other castles, so that they became half time more than before, as the fight broke out.
There Hagen said to his brothers, 'We have slain many Hunas, but as much we're fighting against as more is doing nothing. That's how they increase themselves so much by folk coming from counties and castles; and those we are fighting against are nothing else than their bondsmen. Their leaders are standing on one side over there and keep watching. That's my basic problem because we are not outside. If we were there, we could choose from those who we would love to fight against. If it wouldn't change, we could clearly see the Nyfflings falling, because they (the Hunas) do cause us more harm by their spears. If we could use our swords boldly, they wouldn't defeat us! Let's try heroically to find a breach!'
A wall like of a castle surrounded the garden.
There Hagen encountered a crumblier part of the wall to the very left of the garden; to which they ran vigorously and broke the wall towards the outside with all their energy.
Now Hagen sprang out and his brothers with him and even more Nyfflings.
As they came out between houses and a small lane, there Duke Osid faced them with his banner troop, and a hard fight began between them.
There the Hunas blew their horns and forwarded that the Nyfflings had escaped from the garden. Now all were streaming to that place in such superior strength that the Nyfflings fled back into the garden.

There was a stone hall at that place. Hagen came there at the door that was locked. He turned his back to the door and struck one after another. Some lost their arms and some their feet, and some their life. And they were pressing so much towards him, who was heroically defending himself, that they got an upper pavement of dead men of nearly an arm's length above the ground. Up to that time, Hagen had no wound.
Sir Didrik and all his well armoured men were standing above on a platform nearby.
Gernholt came there, turned his back to a wall, defended himself manly and slew some man. The Hunas were pressing hard towards them at that place.
Gernholt said to Didrik-king, 'You might do something with your men and help us; and don't let so many men be fighting against a few only!'
Sir Didrik answered, 'My good friend Gernholt! That's big agony to me: I'm losing some good friend, but I cannot do anything against it. I don't want to fight against King Aktilius' folk; I don't want to take an unsavoury action against you, too, as far as I might know about.'

King Gunnar was in the garden. He heard that his brothers needed support. Therefore, he came out from the breach with his men they had broken in the wall.
Duke Osid was on the other side, and many Hunas with him. King Gunnar was boldly pressing towards them, so that none of his men was strong enough to follow him. There Osid-Jarl (the duke), Aktilius' nephew, met him with many folk. King Gunnar defended himself manly all the day. He had no help, rather he was alone amid the Hunas' ranks, and he became so exhausted that he must surrender. They grasped him and tied him up and brought him to Aktilius-king. There the king told to throw King Gunnar into his Snake Tower, and King Gunnar lost his life there. The same tower is still standing amid Susa.

Hagen and Gernholt heard that their brother King Gunnar had been caught. There Hagen sprang through the door into the lane and struck down every man he met. And nobody dared to wait for him. Gernholt did the same, and stroke with both hands. His sword was stopped only by the ground – whose helmet he ever struck. Sir Gislher, who strikes some man with his sword Gram, follows him.
There the Nyfflings rushed so rigorously out the garden that the Hunas were falling down to their feet; and the Hunas begun to flee by droves, each of them to his hall. Aktilius-king mounted the tower and told to close the door in order to protect himself against the Nyfflings.
There the Nyfflings raised their battle voice and screamed so that the Hunas were running away and going to avenge their harm. Nonetheless, the Hunas fled. Then the darkness of the night was approaching quickly. However, the Nyfflings were looking for them at the castle's foot and struck to Hel anyone they found.

Margrave Rodger went into Didrik's hostel and spend the night there, and Duke Osid und Irung-Jarl went each to his own hostel. There was so much darkness in the night that nobody could see anything. There many Hunas joined inside and moved out in large numbers.
There Hagen told to blew his horns and called together all his folk; he was standing on a wall where all Nyfflings were close to him.
There Hagen asked Gernholt, 'Count them – how many folk have we lost with Gunnar-king – or: how many we do still have?'
They put again their folk in order and rolled out their banners and counted their men. They had seven hundred, and had lost three hundred.
There Hagen said, 'We still have enough folk, and the Hunas are to lose some man before we all are going to fall on the ground!'
All Nyfflings said 'yes' to it.
When they had had a rest and bandaged their wounds, there Hagen said, 'We cannot escape from here; but if we were waiting all the night, so many folk from the counties had joined that they would be even more superior to us. We'll get fire for that reason, so that we can see and strike to Hel those who come at first, so we can take it much better!'
Being said this, Hagen ran to search fire, and he lit a wooden cookhouse that was in the castle, so that the fire illuminated the whole castle.
There the Nyfflings let blow their horns and reviled the Hunas and challenged them to fighting.
However, the Hunas were standing above behind the merlons and shot one after another and threw at the Nyfflings, and the Nyfflings did likewise against them. However, the Hunas would not come down to fight against the Nyfflings before daybreak. Nonetheless, the Nyfflings struck many to Hel.

Early in the morning the Hunas went down, and many had come in the night from Frisian counties. They put again their ranks in order, and the Nyfflings did the same, and they faced each other and fought.
Crimilla drove the Hunas sharply to press forward, and she offered them gold and silver in return.
King Aktilius was not in the near of them.
There Duke Osid and Gernholt crossed their way and fought long against each other. Gernholt proceeded extremely manly against him and struck on his neck so that his head flew away.
As the duke was dead, the Nyfflings were in high spirits and pressed forward sharply. Gernholt struck to both sides. There the Hunas were suffering of large harm.

When Margrave Rodger was informed that Duke Osid was slain, he became very enraged and told to bear his banner into the centre of the Nyfflings ranks and followed manly, and caused the Nyfflings large harm.
There Hagen stepped forward, to the mid of them (the Hunas) and struck with both hands, and made his way across their ranks, and nobody dared to come so close to him that his sword would reach him. Hagen's hands and all his armour were wholly bloody; he had come so far into their ranks that none of his men dared to follow or help him.
He turned to a stone hall for that reason and smashed the its door and entered the hall and recovered for a while. Margrave Rodger fought manly and caused the Nyfflings large harm.

Now the Hunas were violently storming the door of the hall where Hagen was in. He defended the gate and slew some man there.
There Crimilla recognized Hagen as he was killing some man. Now she told to bombard the hall with fire, because its roof was wholly wooden.
A man called Irung was there; he was a good friend of the queen.
She said to him, 'Enter the hall to get him and bring out his head to me, so I will fill your shield with gold!'
There Irung sprang through the door; his stroke broke the byrnie and cut off a part from his leg (Mb: 'as much as the largest part for the kettle').
Thereafter Irung sprang out of the hall.
There Crimilla said to him, 'You are a handsome man, now I see that Hagen is bleeding. Just go again and bring him the death!'
Then she took two golden rings and fixed them at his helmet bands, and she said, 'Decapitate him, then I will give you as much gold and silver as you want.'
There Iron-Jarl (Irung) sprang into the hall.
There Hagen took a lance and thrust it under the shield through byrnie and breast, so that it came out on his shoulders; and he fell down dead on the pavement of a place that is still called 'Irons Way' today.
Hagen said, 'If I had avenged Crimilla's evilness as I avenged Irung upon my wound, my sword had stricken manly in Hunaland.'

Margrave Rodger proceeds bravely and does cause the Nyfflings large harm.
Young Gislher met him. Both fought long and heroically.
Gislher's sword was biting both steel and clothes, helmets and shields and byrnies so well that nothing could resist against it. There the margrave got some wound before he fell and died at once – by the same sword as he had given to Gislher.

Gislher and Gernholt proceeded manly and came to the hall where Hagen was, and they entered to go to him.
Folkward-Speleman saw it. He bravely pressed forward and followed them, and struck down one man after another and came to that hall on footpath that was not of earth but of dead bodies.
Hagen asked, 'Who are you, who is so bravely stepping forward? Come here to me!'
Folkward answered, 'My name is Folkward-Speleman, your good friend! Look at the way I have taken to you!'
Hagen answered, 'Have good thanks for it! Your sword might cause trouble in Hunaland.'

Didrik of Bern knew that the margrave was dead.
He said to his men, 'We cannot do nothing any longer. We'll avenge the death of Margrave Rodger and fight against the Nyfflings!'
After that he sprang into the centre of the lane.
It was not good for any men to stand between the Nyfflings and him. And German men tell that the sound of the Ekkysax striking on the helmets was heard for Sir Didrik's big anger. The Nyfflings defended themselves bravely. Many of Sir Didrik's men fell there, and many Nyfflings, too.
There Sir Didrik proceeded very hard, so that Hagen and Gernholt and Gislher and Folkward-Speleman had to withdraw into the hall. Didrik and Master Hillebrand followed them rigidly.
Sir Didrik came to the door where Folkward defended it against him. Sir Didrik struck on the neck of Folkward so that Folkward's head was following the sword. There Hagen sprang towards Didrik, and Gernholt towards Hillebrand.
And Hillebrand was striking on Gernholt with his strong sword Lagulf, so that Gernholt got the mortal wound and fell down at once, dead to his feet.
There were only a few who could fight: Didrik and Hillebrand, Hagen and Gislher.

There Aktilius-king went to the place where they were fighting.
There Hagen said to Aktilius-king, 'Act like a nobleman and grant the life of this young lord! He is Gislher, he still can became a good hero since his not guilty of Young Sigord's death. It was only me who killed him, don't let him pay for it; and if he wants to stay alive he can become a nobleman!'
There Gislher said, 'I was only one (Mb: fife years) when Sigord was slain, and I am not guilty of his death, as this knows my sister Crimilla. I don't say it in fright. I will defend myself as long as I can, and I don't wish to survive my brothers.'
Then he pressed towards Hillebrand, and one struck on the other, and, as to be expected, he (Hillebrand) struck him so much that he fell at once and died.

There Hagen said to King Didrik, 'Now I see that our friendship is going to break, and now I'm out for the best of yours, so that either you or I shall die. And we'll make this fight chivalrously, and no-one shall ask for help!'
There Didrik answered, 'I ask no-one to help me in the fight, and I will defeat you even by skilfulness and braveness!'
They were striking long and hard – and nobody could recognize the victor – till they became exhausted and badly wounded. There Didrik got so fierce and cross and grudging since one man should be resisting him so much.
There Didrik said, 'It's a great shame that a son of an elf has to face me so long!'
There Hagen answered, 'It isn't worse to be an elf's son than the devil's!'
There King Didrik became so enraged that his blood was boiling, and Hagen's byrnie, shield and helmet got so hot that he was almost scorched.
There Hagen said, 'Now I'm bloody and burned by the rings of my byrnie. If I were a fish instead of human, I would be already fried; and a large part of my body is so fried that I'm done to be eaten. I surrender for that reason.'
There Didrik took his sword and his helmet and his byrnie away from him.

There Crimilla took a burning log and thrust it into the mouth of her brother Gernholt, and (she knew now) he was dead.
Thereupon she thrust that log into Gislher's mouth. He was still alive, but he died of flame and smoke.
There Didrik said to Aktilius-king, 'Now you can see the devil in your spouse, and how she tortures their brothers into death, the sprightly heroes, and how some man, Nyfflings and Hunas, had to give his life for her sins. And she would like you and me to be slain, too.'
There Aktilius-king said, 'Dear Didrik, slay her, she is the devil for sure. If you had done it seven day before, some brave man were still alive who now is dead!'
There Didrik-king rushed to Crimilla and stroke her right through.

Thereupon he went to Hagen and asked whether he believed to stay alive if he had a good physician.
Hagen answered, 'I will be alive for some days, yet it won't last long for my large wounds.'
Thereupon Sir Didrik let carry him into his hostel and bandage his wounds. Sir Didrik had a maiden relative called Märeth who bandaged Hagen's wounds.
Hagen secretly said to Sir Didrik, 'Bring me a woman for the night, as I'm yearning for it.'
Sir Didrik did as Hagen had requested. She laid on his side in the night.
Early in the morning Hagen said to her, 'You'll give birth to a son, let him name Aldrian! And here're the keys for you that will open Sigord's cave; there is the gold of Nyfflings Hoard. You shall give them to my son when he's got a man.'
Thereafter Hagen died.
Now the most were dead, four thousand of Aktilius' folk and of Didrik's; and about one thousand Nyfflings were fallen.
          German men are telling old traditions that no battle was more famous than this one. After this battle was such an extensive...
(Two lines are missing in the original unclear text. This gap and the unclear passage are restored with Mb 393, as translated by Edward R. Haymes:)
...shortage of good men in the Hunaland. There had never been such a collection of men in Hunland as just before this battle began.
          It came true, as Ercha-queen had foretold Aktilius-king as she died, that Hunaland would suffer of harm if the king would enter in matrimony with Nyfflingaland.
          Everybody who comes to Susa can see the monstrousness that happened there, the garden called Nyfflings Garden, and the Snake Tower and the way that is still called Irung's Way; and some other curious things that happened there.
          Several books have been written about it and preserve that all.

(340–364: Didrik's Return.)

King Aktilius of Hunaland was an old man at that time. He raised Aldrian, the son of Hagen of Troya, created with a woman who laid on his side in his last night. King Aktilius had also a son who was aged twelve years. Aldrian, son of Hagen, was of same age. His grandmother raised both.
Once upon an evening, King Aktilius was sitting at the table. In front of him was Aldrian, son of Hagen who was holding a torch. There a burning drop fell down on Aldrian's foot, burning down through the shoe onto the foot. Aldrian did not become aware of it.
There the king said to him, 'What are you dreaming of, Aldrian? Don't you feel the fire burning you?'
Aldrian answered, 'I saw this: There is good bread of wheat and delicious food, and you're drinking good wine. Then I thought the day would come you were eating bread of barley and drinking water afterwards – if you'd got it.'
King Aktilius answered, 'Why do you think I should eat barley bread or drink water? When I was young I had often to do so on campaigns when I was both hungry and thirsty; but now I'm so old that I won't get often such misery.'
Thereafter they did not talk about it; and Aldrian was going on thinking of the plan to avenge his father and his other relatives.

Once upon a day, King Aktilius rode to the woodland for fun and hunting.
All his men lost their way apart from him and Aldrian, son of Hagen.
Aldrian said to Aktilius, 'How much gold had Young Sigord?'
'That what is called Nyfflings Hoard is the most gold I know at one place.'
Aldrian asked, 'Who preserves that gold?'
Aktilius answered, 'I have no idea of him. I believe that no human being preserves it since it has been buried.'
Aldrian answered, 'What will you give the man who will guide you to the Nyfflings Hoard?'
The king answered, 'I'll make him richer than anyone else in my realm.'
There Aldrian said, 'If you'll keep your word, I'll guide you to the Nyfflings Hoard.'
The king requested to guide him there.
(Aldrian:) 'There we go riding, both of us only because nobody shall follow us!'
King answered, 'That might be going well.'
Aldrian said, 'Let's ride home in the dusk if you want, as I will be ready to follow you.'
And so they did.

Some days later, they ride away to the woodland, King Aktilius and Aldrian. Nobody met them, and nobody could follow them.
They came to a mountain (hill). There Aldrian took the keys for the mountain and opened three doors, and entered the mountain with Aktilius-king, and said, 'Look here, the Nyfflings Hoard! Here is the gold that was Sigord's, and Gunnar-king's and Hagen's of Tröya.'
Aktilius-king was standing for a long while, looking at the Nyfflings Gold.
And he was utterly happy and believed to be now the richest king who had ever lived.
There Aldrian sprang out through the door and closed all three doors.
King Aktilius said, 'My good friend Aldrian, come in to me! All that gold and silver is yours!'
Aldrian answered, 'There you go with gold and silver for the day of death. Yet, I have been living with few goods; now I'm going to ride to the woodland and have fun!'
Thereupon he locked again all three doors and rolled a big rock and stones before them. There it crossed Aktilius-king's mind that the boy would revenge his father and the other Nyfflings.
Three days later Aldrian returned.
There the king had smashed a door and cried to Aldrian, 'Release me! I will give you gold and silver, and make you King of Hunaland and pay for your father's death. Therefore, you shall have all that gold here in this mountain, and some more. And I will never avenge what you have done to me!'
Aldrian answered, 'You was always yearning for the Nyfflings Hoard in my father's lifetime. Now you have that gold and silver heaped up by many kings and lords by the Grace of God. I think the day has come you'd like to eat barley and drink water.'
Aktilius answered, 'God knows it would be sweet food now – eating barley and drinking water!'
Aldrian answered, 'All the time you was more yearning for gold and silver to drinking and eating – you've been hungry for it a long time.'
Thereafter he carried stones and grass to the doors, so that the king could never come out alive.

Thereupon he mounted the horse and rode to Nyfflingaland to see Queen Brynilla, the widow of King Gunnar, and told her about his ride, how he had avenged Hagen, his father, and King Gunnar and the other Nyfflings.
She greatly thanked him and called together her folk and reported to them this news.
Then she gave Aldrian many knights and accompanying folk.
Thereupon he rode away with many folk and troops and won much of Nyfflingaland; and he became king there, and was it as long as he lived.
King Aktilius died in the mountain.
The Nyfflings Hoard was never found ever since, because Aldrian, who only knew it, thereafter never entered the mountain to meet King Aktilius.

(369: Didrik King of Hunaland.)

(370–376: Heym at Wadhincusan Monastery.)

(377–382: Didrik and Heym at Wadhincusan Monastery .)

(383–384: Didrik's Revenge on Wideke.)

(385: Didrik's Death.)

(386: Final Chapter.)